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The Land Code of (Arazi Kanunnamesi) was the first milestone in the movement toward legalization of private land ownership. It was preceded by the Tapu. The Ottoman Imperial Land Code, which was promulgated on 6 June , was ve Tarihyazimi: Osmanli Arazi Kanunnamesi’ne Yönelik Yaklaçimlar’. sarsan asıl dönüşümlerin tohumları Tanzimat Fermanı ve tarihli Arazi Kanunname- Bu gerekçeyle Arazi Kanunnamesi’nin birinci maddesi Osmanlı .

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This was designed to increase the area of land under cultivation. When these two innovations were combined, it meant that individuals could now on paper own very large tracts of land.

Knunnamesi the au tio held i Kanunnamei ul he increased the down payment to 71, piasters and apparently let officials in the Treasury know that the property in question had been confiscated while under the possession kanubnamesi his father. In their petitions, the emirs were aware that the encounter between a petitioner and ruler was heavily asymmetrical and also dialogic, yet it did not prevent them from laying claims on the family estates they believed to have possessed Chalcraft, The Land Code reiterated basic legal doctrine on the means of acquiring land through possession and cultivation of land for a ten-year period, the condition that land uncultivated for a three-year period became mahlul lapsed ownershipand the means of inheriting land.


Particularly, they were maintained, administered, kxnunnamesi eventually sold to private parties in their original statuses.

Large-scale landlords took possession of vast tracts of land, still mostly unoccupied or unclaimed. These grants were known as malikane. Classical Ottoman land-tenure legislation made a fundamental distinction between the right to cultivate land tasarruf and the absolute ownership of land raqaba.


Furthermore, they also claimed their traditional rights on the rice lands madrabs in the districts of Hazro and Mihrani, which were claimed to be outside the bundle of the family estate BOA.

kanunnaemsi The Land Code was characterized by marked continuity with the classical fifteenth- and sixteenth-century qanuns regulating agrarian property rights. Thus, whereas previously the ayan had possessed the right to collect taxes, now those who did not cultivate land could still possess land kanuhnamesi become taxpayers.

With regard to continuity, Barkan argues that the Code emerged as a culmination of the existing legal practices of the previous centuries on different land tenure arrangements, and therefore a transformation of what had been kanunmamesi facto into de jure. It is not clear that the creation of large estates constitutes the failure of the Land Code. Similarly, in Anatolia large estates were formed on wasteland, often located in swampy plains and in the Kurds’ tribal lands to the kanunnamesi.

While acknowledging the impact of the Code, this study, however, underscores that the eatio of la ge p i ate estates as a p o ess p e edi g the p o ulgatio of the ode a d that the code only facilitated this creation as a result of struggles among the state and societal actors.

Land Code of |

A consequence of malikane was that tax farmers increased their autonomy from the state and often became local rulers ayan. Skip to main content. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 37, The Margins of the Empire: The Ottoman government, however, auctioned the escheated family domains following the promulgation of the Code with fiscal concerns. Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, As strong leaders of their districts, at least a faction of the Zirki emirs manipulated the reform process in their favour.

In other words, the Zirki beys manipulated their states of being in order to negotiate their exile and the restoration of the property.


Village, Steppe and State: While the lands in question were tax farmed to provincial governors of Kurdistan BOA. Efforts were made to sedentarize nomadic tribes, both to provide laborers for the cultivation of cotton and to subject them to taxation. When the British assumed control over Palestine at the end of with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, they applied the Ottoman laws of the Ottoman Land Code of to all inhabitants.

The capacity of peasants in parts of Palestine and Anatolia to obtain legal possession of their land suggests that peasants were not automatically unwilling to register their land; it would seem to be the case that in many regions, they were unable to do so.

As the implementation of the Land Code altered the land possession in Ottoman Kurdistan, in general, and Diyarbekir, in particular, the success of Yusuf Bey in acquiring the family estates on his behalf did not go unchallenged. This measure was not designed to prevent absentee ownership; indeed, the code specifically stated 11858 legal ownership of land took precedence over actual occupation and cultivation.


Usually, land was communally owned by village residents, though land could be owned by individuals or families. In this context, Ottoman Kurdistan was no exception. Help Center Find new research papers in: The Ottoman Land Code of Turkish, Arazi Kanunnamesi was an extension of the Tanzimat reforms to the areas of agricultural property and taxation.

Wealthy individuals, often government officials, would bid at kanunamesi auction for the right to collect taxes.